IMPROVEMENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL AND TRAINING PROCESS OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS IN THE PREPARATORY PERIOD
The materials of the theoretical analysis of the problem of constructing the educational-training process of football players in the preparatory period are presented. due to the specifics of football and the requirements for achieving the highest possible results in competitive activity. The main task of training is to improve the quality of the game based on the optimal level of functional capabilities and physical abilities, to further improve the technical and tactical readiness and the formation of psychological stability of football players. It is an obvious fact that it is the target orientation on the long-term training of promising football players that should determine the organizational and methodological features of the training process. The presented materials were used in the development of a methodology for constructing an educationaltraining process for training football players aged 16–18 in the preparatory period of a one-year macrocycle. The developed methodology is based on the principle of non-emphasized improvement of the functional readiness of football players for technical and tactical skill. In the educational and training process, the emphasis was placed on the development of general and special endurance, speed-strength abilities and speed. This was carried out due to the selection of optimal physical loads (the heart rate during training did not exceed 160 beats / min, while working to improve speed abilities – no more than 185 beats / min). The research involved football players aged 16–18. The aim of the study was to develop and test the effectiveness of the model for building the educational-training process of training football players aged 16–18 in the preparatory period of a one-year macrocycle. The positive dynamics of the growth of indicators of the leading physical qualities of football players at the end of the preparatory period was recorded. The very dynamics of the growth of indicators of general and speed endurance, as well as speed-power qualities was found. However, no significant changes were found in any of the indicators. Cooper’s test revealed a tendency towards reliability. At the end of the preparatory period, the indicators of the Stange test, the Genchi test, and the Skibinsky index underwent significant changes. Unreliable changes were noted in the indicators of heart rate and blood pressure at the end of the preparatory period, but they also improved within the age norm. For all indicators characterizing the functional state of the cardiovascular system, positive changes also occurred. The Rufier test showed the most relative increase (47.46%). At the end of the preparatory period, a positive dynamics of the level of physical performance of football players was revealed. Average values of both absolute and relative working capacity, absolute and relative maximum oxygen consumption significantly increased at the end of the preparatory period.
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