INHERITANCE OF THE SIGN OF THE HIGH CONTENT OF OLEIN ACID IN SUNFLOWER OIL
The material for the study was the collection of sunflower lines of the Institute of Oilseeds of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in the number of 180 lines. The collection of sunflower was studied for 15 years. Only lines were included in the study. The composition of the oil was determined by gas-liquid chromatography according to DSTU 30418-96. Determination of the oil composition of hybrids of the second generation was determined from the part of the achenes, namely the cotyledons for the purpose of further generation of the offspring of the following generations. Analysis of the composition of oil in selfpollinated plants of backcross progeny, hybrids of the first generation and baselines was carried out by means of an average oil from the whole basket. To carry out the analysis, only the seeds of isolated plants were used.
Samples with a high oleic acid content of more than 75 % (13 samples) and a low of less than 45 % (160 samples) are clearly identified in the collection. The latter are divided into at least 4 groups. Pairwise comparison of them using a single-factor analysis of variance indicates a significant difference in the mean.
Another part of the collection of 13 lines is characterized by a high content of oleic acid. These include the selection line of LBO7B, which is already used in commercial hybrids. All thirteen lines they have an oleic acid content above 77 % and are stable in composition of the oil. The average content of oleic acid in the oil of this group of lines is 86.89 ± 9.48 %. The confidence interval is 77.41- 96.37 %. All of them are characterized by low coefficients of variation, which indicates the stability of the manifestation of the feature in different years of the study.
Analogues of selection lines with a high content of oleic acid have been created. The maternal line of the usual oil composition was crossed with paternal oil having a high oleic acid content of 80 %. The hybrid of the first generation was self-pollinated, and the pollen was used as a paternal component for crossing with a normal starting line. The process was repeated up to 7 generations. The composition of the oil in subsequent generations was tested in seed oil from the self-pollination of the plant from which the pollen was taken. All plants that had an intermediate oleic acid content of 55-75 %, in the subsequent generation showed a cleavage in the offspring. The work was carried out along eight lines. In each generation, not a large number of plants were evaluated, usually 6 in some cases up to 20.
As the donors of the high oleic acid content indicator, the lines of LBO7 and Ex6 / 1 were used. All crossings, in which the line Ex6 / 1 acted as a donor of high oleininity, showed splitting in the progeny into two classes, but plants with an oleic acid content of more than 76 % were never obtained. The initial line Ex6 / 1 had an average oleic acid content of 89.45 %. To the observed splittings, one can hypothesize the 1: 1 or 9: 7 splitting model. When summing all the descendants of self-pollination, 27:21 corresponds to the model completely 9: 7 (χ20,05 =0,00 < χ20,05 (df=1) = 3,81), and the 1: 1 model is reliable (χ20,05 =0,75 < χ20,05 (df=1) = 3,81). In this case, a low content of oleic acid predominates. The data obtained are not consistent with the generally accepted model of the dominant inheritance of the higholeonicity characteristic. Perhaps this is due to the presence in the line Ex6 / 1 of other genes that affect the composition of the oil.
The splitting in the second generation of the combination VIR199 × LVO7 was studied. A large number of plants were obtained and analyzed for the composition of the oil. All the plants of the first generation fall into a narrow range of oleic acid content – above 60 %. Line IVO7 has oleic acid more than 80 %. The distribution of second generation offspring by the content of oleic acid is not smooth. There are five peaks. This fact corresponds to the maximum published number of genes. Dividing the second generation offspring into plants corresponding to the paternal component – from 83 % of oleic acid and above and to all the rest, we get 37: 109, which corresponds to the 1: 3 model (χ20,05 = 0,09). Having counted the same for the second parent with a low oleic acid content, we get 112: 34 (3: 1 χ20,05 = 0,23).
We can draw a conclusion that our studies with the participation of the LOV7 line confirm the monogenic model. Further study of the generations from the crossing of the line of the IVO7 shows that the homozygous form for the isolated gene determines the content of oleic acid from 82 % and higher. All typical plants with an oleic acid content below 80 % have a cleavage in descendants for several classes.
Employee of the Breeding and Genetics Institute Solodenko A.E. when studying our lines ЛВ07 and ВИР199 with the use of primers that make it possible to determine the presence of insertion in the delta-12 desaturase gene, two alleles were identified. DNA marker 900 bp identifies the high-oleic sunflower line LV07.
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