THE DEVELOPMENT OF OUT-OF-SCHOOL EDUCATION OF UKRAINE IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE XX CENTURY
The article analyzes the development of theoretical foundations and practice of out-of-scool education, which allowed the author to make a generalization that it has its own history, due to the diversity of content and forms of implementation. The author states that 1918 is considered to be the year of the birth of out-of-school education in Ukraine as a unique educational unit. That very year an outstanding educator and public figure S. Rusova became the head of two departments: school education and out-of-school education in the government of the young Ukrainian state. Before 1917, only certain elements of this activity could be traced. The term “out-of-school education” in its modern sense entered the conceptual apparatus in the end of the nineteenth century. The research notes that the beginning of the twentieth century is characterized by rapid political and social changes. The development of democracy, the growth of the national movement in the country promoted the intensification of work with children and teenagers, which became an objective necessity for up-bringing of a new personality and led to the extension of the network of educational institutions in the field of leisure-there appeared Sunday schools, different societies and courses, Narodny budinky, which realized cultural- educational activities, organized lectures, performances, excursions, created drama societies and choir groups, libraries and reading rooms, etc. The first clubs for children and teenagers from poor families were established in order to organize their leisure, considering their interests in theatre, music, science, fine arts, etc. The article distinguishes peculiar features of out-of-school education at the beginning of the twentieth century: the extension of its content and the diversification of forms of organization in out-of-school and other educational institutions. There was a search for ways to develop out-of-school education for children. Analytical work was carried out and finally they came to realize the necessity to create conditions for out-of-school activities. This time is seen as preparatory to the creation of an out-of-school educational system. The author notes that the connection between upbringing and production was a characteristic feature in the 20’s and 30’s of the twentieth century. On getting acquainted with some professions the children had an opportunity to choose one of them according to their own inclinations and desires, which contributed to their socialization in the society. The article proves that in 1930–1940 the system of out-of-school education got further development. The network of out-of-school institutions, the content of out-of-school education focused on its connection with life, solving the task of an all-round development of a personality, preparation for its work and continuation of studying.
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