• M. H. Tkalych Ukrainian State Employment Service Training Institute
  • M. I. Hrechanyk Ukrainian State Employment Service Training Institute
  • E. O. Hrechanyk
Keywords: sexual orientation, homosexuality, individual, sexual behavior, biological factors, ontogenetic development, evolution


The article presents a theoretical analysis and justification of biological factors of individual homosexuality. The separate influence of genetic, ontogenetic and ethological factors on the process of formation of sexual orientation of an individual has been highlighted. The analysis of homosexuality through the prism of evolutionary psychology has been carried out. The factors of ontogenetic development that influence the formation of homosexuality have been determined. Also we have analyzed the factors of hormonal influence, which is carried out during fetal development on the formation of homosexuality; the influence of testosterone on the behavior and sex differences in humans and other animals. Particular attention was paid to sexual differentiation of the brain during fetal development. The relationship between maternal stress and the prenatal period and the development of homosexuality has been also considered. The main evolutionary factors influencing the formation of homosexuality are the following: adaptability, family selection, neutral traits, reproductive success. Important attention was paid to the issue of dichotomizing sexual behavior into intelligible and illegible in the context of evolution. The ethological factors of primate development have been reviewed, the connection between peripheralization, group way of survival among primates and the formation of homosexuality was established, which can be aimed not only at satisfying reproductive needs, but also at resolving intragroup conflicts and increasing social status in the group, the chances of survival, exchanging resources and in this context, homosexuality should be seen as a mechanism for uniting in a community against danger. Theoretical and methodological analysis of the influence of biological factors on the formation of homosexuality in the process of evolution was carried out: it was determined that there is a significant biological contribution to the development of gender identity and sexual orientation of an individual.


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