The efficacy of natural acaricide application against ixodidae (Ixodes ricinus)

  • N. V. Voronova Zaporizhzhya National University
  • V. V. Horban Zaporizhzhya National University
  • V. A. Bohatkina Zaporizhzhya National University
Keywords: Ixodes ticks, acaricides, repellents, essential oils

Abstract

This article presents the results of experimental studies on refined methods of controlling Ixodes tick populations via the utilization of potent and effective acaricides. In order to determine potential acaricidal properties essential oils from the Salvia officinalis L, Thymus serpyllum L., and Pinus sylvestris L. plants were selected. In order to extract the essential oils steam distillation was used, which takes advantage of the volatility of a compound to evaporate when heated with steam and the hydrophobicity of the compound to separate into an oil phase during condensation. The composition of the essential oils was studied by gas chromatography. The search for more potent and effective acaricides that can be used to limit populations of Ixodes ticks is one of the most important tasks of modern science. The purpose of our work was to suggest the use of new methods of eliminating or controlling the tick population in the Zaporizhzhia region. The main advantage of this new proposed method, in comparison with existing strategies, is environmental safety. Experimentation involving 730 specimens in the Zaporizhzhia region began in May, 2018 and ended in June, 2019. Through our experiments, we determined the viability of Salvia officinalis L and Thymus serpyllum L essential oils as potential acaricides. The LD 50 calculated for both essential oils was 3% in 24 hours and 1% in 2 hours, respectively. The agent used to attract the ticks was pine extract. Thus, we suppose that the implementation of these essential oils as acaricides reduce tick populations, thereby limiting the chance of contracting tick-borne diseases. Our tests demonstrate that Salvia officinalis L., and Thymus serpyllum L. are the most effective repellants amongst the rest of the examined plants. The essential oils of these plants, when used as a solvent, had a more powerful influence upon Ixodidae. The results indicate that essential oils could be used to counter the tick populations in areas with higher incidences of tick-borne infection.

References

Література
(1) Marchant, A.; Le Coupanec, A.; Joly, C.; Perthame, E.; Sertour, N.; Garnier, M.; Godard, V.; Ferquel, E.; Choumet, V. Infection of Ixodes Ricinus by Borrelia Burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Peri-Urban Forests of France. PLoS One 2017, 12 (8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183543.
(2) Kowalec, M.; Szewczyk, T.; Welc-Faleciak, R.; Sinski, E.; Karbowiak, G.; Bajer, A. Rickettsiales Occurrence and Co-Occurrence in Ixodes Ricinus Ticks in Natural and Urban Areas. Microb. Ecol. 2019, 77 (4), 890–904. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-018-1269-y.
(3) Allen, H. C.; Welliver, R. C.; Fogarty, M. W.; Gessouroun, M. E; Henry, E. D. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy for Cerebral Vasculitis Associated with Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. J. Pediatr. INTENSIVE CARE 2017, 6 (2), 142–144. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0036-1587327.
(4) Ogden, N. H.; Bouchard, C.; Badcock, J.; Drebot, M. A.; Elias, S. P.; Hatchette, T. F.; Koffi, J. K.; Leighton, P. A.; Lindsay, L. R.; Lubelczyk, C. B. . et al. What Is the Real Number of Lyme Disease Cases in Canada? BMC Public Health 2019, 19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7219-x.
(5) Andreychyn, M.; Pańczuk, A.; Shkilna, M.; Tokarska-Rodak, M.; Korda, M.; Kozioł-Montewka, M.; Klishch, I. Epidemiological Situation of Lyme Borreliosis and Diagnosis Standards in Poland and Ukraine. Heal. Probl. Civiliz. 2017, 11 (3), 190–194. https://doi.org/10.5114/hpc.2017.69020.
(6) Biletska, H.; Podavalenko, L.; Semenyshyn, O.; Lozynskyj, I.; Tarasyuk, O. Study of Lyme Borreliosis in Ukraine. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 2008, 298 (44), 154–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2008.04.004.
(7) Воронова, Н.В.; Горбань, В.В.; Лугінін, М. С. Епідеміологічне Значення Кровосисних Членистоногих Реакційних Зон Північно-Західного Приазов’я. Вісник Запорізького державного університету. Біологічні науки 2009, 2, 126–131.
(8) Воронова, Н.В.; Горбань, В.В.; Лугінін, М. С. Розподіл Іксодових Кліщів За Біогеоценозами Лiсових Насаджань Запорізької Області. Вісник Запорізького національного університету. Біологічні науки 2011, 1, 17–25.
(9) El-Seedi, H. R.; Azeem, M.; Khalil, N. S.; Sakr, H. H.; Khalifa, S. A. M.; Awang, K.; Saeed, A.; Farag, M. A.; AlAjmi, M. F.; Palsson, K. . et al.; Saeed, A.; Farag, M. A.; AlAjmi, M. F.; Palsson, K.; Borg-Karlson, A.-K. Essential Oils of Aromatic Egyptian Plants Repel Nymphs of the Tick Ixodes Ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp. Appl. Acarol. 2017, 73 (1), 139–157. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-017-0165-3.
(10) Stefanidesova, K.; Skultety, L.; Sparagano, O. A. E. ; Špitalká E. The Repellent Efficacy of Eleven Essential Oils against Adult Dermacentor Reticulatus Ticks. Ticks Tick. Borne. Dis. 2017, 8 (5), 780–786. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2017.06.003.
(11) Lazcano Diaz, E.; Padilla Camberos, E.; Castillo Herrera, G. A.; Estarron Espinosa, M.; Espinosa Andrews, H.; Paniagua Buelnas, N. A.; Gutierrez Ortega, A.; Martinez Velazquez, M. Development of Essential Oil-Based Phyto-Formulations to Control the Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus Microplus Using a Mixture Design Approach. Exp. Parasitol. 2019, 201,
26–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2019.04.008.
(12) Rashidi S.; Eikani M.; Ardjmand M. Extraction of Hyssopus Officinalis L. Essential Oil Using Instant Controlled Pressure Drop Process. J. Chromatogr. 2019, 1579, 9–19. https://doi.org/http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2018.10.020.
(13) Кузнецов В. Г. К Методике Сбора и Хранения Иксодовых Клещей. Медицинская паразитология и паразитарные болезни 1968, 3, 99–101.
(14) Rulison, E. L.; Kuczaj, I.; Pang, G.; Hickling, G. J.; Tsao, J. I.; Ginsberg, H. S. Flagging versus Dragging as Sampling Methods for Nymphal Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae). J. VECTOR Ecol. 2013, 38 (1), 163–167. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2013.12022.x.
(15) Ємчук Є.М. Фауна України. Іксодові Кліщі, Том 25.; Київ: Видавництво АН Української РСР, 1960; pp 33-74.
(16) European Pharmacopoeia; 9.1, Ed.; 2016; pp 285–286.
(17) Iori, A.; Grazioli, D.; Gentile, E.; Marano, G.; Salvatore, G. Acaricidal Properties of the Essential Oil of Melaleuca Alternifolia Cheel (Tea Tree Oil) against Nymphs of Ixodes Ricinus. Vet. Parasitol. 2005, 129 (1–2), 173–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.11.035.
(18) Коцюмбас І. Я. Доклінічні Дослідження Ветеринарних Лікарських Засобів. Львів Трі; 2006; pp 136–165.
(19) Abu Darwish, M.; Cabral, C.; Ferreira, I.; Gonçalves, M.; Cavaleiro, C.; Cruz, M.; Al-Bdour, T.; Salgueiro, L. Essential Oil of Common Sage (Salvia Officinalis L.) from Jordan: Assessment of Safety in Mammalian Cells and Its Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential. Biomed Res. Int. 2013, 2013, 538940. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/538940.
(20) Котюк Л. А., Рахметов Р. Д. Біологічно Активні Речовини Salvia Officinalis L. та Salvia Sclarea L. при Зростанні в Умовах Ботанічного Саду ЖНАЕУ. Ботанічні сади проблеми інтродукції та збереження рослинного різноманіття матеріали Всеукр. наук. конф., 10–11 жовт. 2013 р 2013, 84–89.
(21) Kirillov, V.; Stikhareva, T.; Mukanov, B.; Chebotko, N.; Ryazantsev, O.; Atazhanova, G.; Adekenov, S. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus Serpyllum L. from Northern Kazakhstan. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants 2016, 19 (1), 212–222. https://doi.org/10.1080/
0972060X.2015.1010600.
(22) Voronova N.V.; Gorban V.V.; Bogatkina V.A.; Lyginin N. S. Investigation and Detection of New Methods of Controlling and Abolition the Ticks in Urbanized Landscapes of Zaporozhzhya Region; Sciences, T. N. E. C. on B. and M., Ed.; The Ninth European Conference on Biology and Medical Sciences, 2016; pp 109–111.
(23) Alekseev, A.N.; Burenkova, L.A.; Chunikhin, S. . Plant Odors as Determinants of Behaviour and Development Rate of Ixodids, Vector of Diseases. Parazitologiya 1992, 26 (1), 20–32.
(24) Оленев Н. О. Новые Данные о Влиянии Фитонцидов Высших Растений На Паразитических Клещей и Насекомых. ДАН СССР. 1950, 75, 149–151.
(25) Kulma, M.; Bubová, T.; Kopecký, O.; Rettich, F. Lavender, Eucalyptus, and Orange Essential Oils as Repellents against Ixodes Ricinus Females. Sci. Agric. Bohem. 2017, 48, 76–81. https://doi.org/10.1515/sab-2017-001.
(26) Jaenson, T. G. T.; Palsson, K.; Borg-Karlson, A. K. Evaluation of Extracts and Oils of Tick-Repellent Plants from Sweden. Med. Vet. Entomol. 2005, 19 (4), 345–352. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2005.00578.x.
(27) Jaenson, T.; Carboui, S.; Palsson, K. Repellency of Oils of Lemon Eucalyptus, Geranium, and Lavender and the Mosquito Repellent MyggA Natural to Ixodes Ricinus (Acari : Ixodidae) in the Laboratory and Field. J. Med. Entomol. 2006, 43 (4), 731–736. https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585(2006)43{[}731:ROOOLE]2.0.CO;2.
(28) Elmhalli, F.; Garboui, S. S.; Borg-Karlson, A.-K.; Mozuraitis, R.; Baldauf, S. L.; Grandi, G. The Repellency and Toxicity Effects of Essential Oils from the Libyan Plants Salvadora Persica and Rosmarinus Officinalis against Nymphs of Ixodes Ricinus. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 2019, 77 (4), 585–599. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-019-00373-5.
(29) Rios, N.; Stashenko, E. E.; Duque, J. E. Evaluation of the Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oils and Their Mixtures against Aedes Aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 2017, 61 (4), 307–311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rbe.2017.08.005.
(30) Germinara, G. S.; Di Stefano, M. G.; De Acutis, L.; Pati, S.; Delfine, S.; De Cristofaro, A.; Rotundo, G. Bioactivities of Lavandula Angustifolia Essential Oil against the Stored Grain Pest Sitophilus Granarius. Bull. Insectology 2017, 70 (1), 129–138.
(31) de Monteiro, C. M.; Maturano, R.; Daemon, E.; Aragao Catunda-Junior, F. E.; Calmon, F.; Senra, T. de S.; Faza, A.; de Carvalho, M. G. Acaricidal Activity of Eugenol on Rhipicephalus Microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor Nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) Larvae. Parasitol. Res. 2012, 111 (3), 1295–1300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-012-2964-0.
(32) Martynov, V. O.; Titov, O. G.; Kolombar, T. M.; Brygadyrenko, V. V. Influence of Essential Oils of Plants on the Migration Activity of Tribolium Confusum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Biosyst. Divers. 2019, 27 (2), 177–185. https://doi.org/10.15421/011924.
How to Cite
Voronova, N. V., Horban, V. V., & Bohatkina, V. A. (1). The efficacy of natural acaricide application against ixodidae (Ixodes ricinus). Bulletin of Zaporizhzhia National University. Biological Sciences, (1), 31-39. https://doi.org/10.26661/2410-0943-2019-1-04