• T. A. Marchenko
Keywords: censorship, linguistic transformations, work publication, phonetic differences, lexical units, linguistic aspect, outdated vocabulary, colloquial variant


The article considers the issues of language transformations in Mykhailo Mykhailovych Kotsubynskyi’s story “A Gift for a Birthday” (1912) of different years of publication: the beginning (1930 edition) and the end (1988 edition) of the XX century. The phonetic, grammatical, lexical and syntactic features inherent in both full and abbreviated, censored version of the story are studied. In the course of the linguistic analysis a significant number of discrepancies was revealed. Phonetic, grammatical, lexical and syntactic changes are classified into separate groups, which simplifies the perception of factual material. The largest groups of language transformations are phonetic and grammatical changes, syntactic differences carry not only different language load, but also stylistic. The monologues and dialogues show the influence of syntactic changes on the emotional perception of an artistic text. All language transformations can be used at the present stage of rethinking and compiling the Ukrainian spelling norms. The etymological analysis of individual tokens is due to the need to investigate the motivation for censoring the story, which also contributed to the use of different vocabulary definitions. Since the work of art was analyzed, the elements of literary analysis became an integral part of the study (in this article – a description of the mother’s image); it is proposed to continue the study of this work by psycholinguistic, philosophical and sociological analysis. The amount of censored material for such a small art form as a story was outlined as excessive, which eliminates the authenticity, melodiousness of the Ukrainian language, denies the principles of euphemism in the language, destroys the creative author’s idea; does not contribute to a full-fledged deep perception of the whole work. Vocabulary analysis reveals the incorrectness of the choice of individual lexical items. Illustrative material is presented sequentially: first in the end-of-century edition and then at the beginning of the century, which was caused by the large amount of truncated text during censorship. The question of the influence of Russian orthographic norms on the censorship of the text in the children’s edition of 1930 has been clarified.


1. Діброва Н. Ганс-Крістіан Андерсен: потворний геній, що боявся жінок і не любив дітей. 2009. URL: (дата звернення: 01.08.2020).
2. Зотова В., Залогіна Г. «Говори, говори…»: поетика монологів і діалогів у малій прозі М. Коцюбинського. Українські студії в європейському контексті, 2020. № 1. С. 75–86. URL: (дата звернення: 13.07.2020).
3. Коцюбинський М. Подарунок на іменини. Харків : Український робітник, 1930. 31 с.
4. Коцюбинський М. Твори : у 2-х т. Київ : Наук. думка, 1988. 496 с.
5. Лахманюк А. Іронія паратексту: когнітивний підхід (М. Коцюбинський «Подарунок на іменини»). Науковий вісник Міжнародного гуманітарного університету. Серія «Філологія». Одеса, 2015. № 18. Т. 1. С. 74–77.
6. Фромм Эрих Зелигманн. Теория Фрейда (сборник) URL: (дата звернення: 10.08.2020).
7. Етимологічний словник української мови : у 7-ми т. / за ред. О. Мельничука та ін.. Київ, 1982–2012.
8. Словник української мови : в 11-ти т. Київ, 1970–1980.
How to Cite
Marchenko, T. A. (2020). THE CAUSES OF LANGUAGE TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE STORY OF MICHAEL KOTSUBYNSKYI “A GIFT FOR A BIRTHDAY”. Bulletin of Zaporizhzhia National University. Philological Sciences, 1(1), 159-164.