THE SEMANTIC, STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TOPONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE (ON THE EXAMPLES OF EVALUATIVE STATEMENTS)

  • S. V. Ryzhkova

Abstract

The article describes the approaches to the definition of “toponym”, as well as it emphasizes the importance of toponymy for related sciences. The question of classification of toponyms is considered separately. It is determined that the creation of a universal classification of multifaceted toponymic material is unlikely or impossible. It is pointed that toponyms have a peculiar, specific semantics, in which there is a dialectical unity of invariant meaning and actualization of discursive meanings. Functioning as units of the language system, place names identify and individualize the object, realizing the invariant meaning. Geographical names serve as units of natural language with the cultural semantics of the cultural code and perform the functions of verbalized signs of culture, actualizing in the mind of the recipient associative connections of cultural and historical nature. It is known that successful intercultural and interlingual communication involves the harmonious assimilation of linguistic patterns and the necessary background knowledge of foreign culture, knowledge of national and cultural characteristics of the native people. Toponyms play a significant role in the formation of the cognitive base of the linguistic personality in the process of its formation. It’s pointed out that the novelty of the article is that in the study the evaluative statement with the toponym is considered in functional and semantic terms. Two groups of statements were identified: with direct and indirect participation of the toponym in the assessment situation. In English, statements with toponyms represent almost all the main types of absolute and comparative evaluation. The author gives examples of the use of toponyms in fiction, in the framework of evaluative expressions. Stylistically marked toponyms are used by the authors to characterize the characters both directly and indirectly. They serve as a kind of epithets, or reflect the author’s attitude to a particular object, to its history (the life of the character), can help create a realistic atmosphere of the described events, give them a certain colour. The perspectives of the question of studying toponyms in English, which consist in studying their morphological aspects, are indicated separately.

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Published
2020-12-21
How to Cite
Ryzhkova, S. V. (2020). THE SEMANTIC, STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TOPONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE (ON THE EXAMPLES OF EVALUATIVE STATEMENTS). Bulletin of Zaporizhzhia National University. Philological Sciences, 2(1), 7-12. https://doi.org/10.26661/2414-9594-2020-1-2-1