THE ASPECT-TENSE RELATIONS OF ADVERBIAL PARTICIPIAL FORMS IN THE UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE OF ХІV - ХІХ OF CENTURIES
In the article they analyse the aspect-tense relations of adverbial participial forms in the Ukrainian language of ХІV - ХІХ of centuries. Attention is accented on the variety of the synonymous adverbial participial forms that weakened gradually during the marked period, it resulted in forcing one of the forms out. This process answers the general progress of verbal adverbs, within the limits of which the fixing of correlation of the aspect-tense trend appears.
Since the ХІV century the adverbial participial forms of the present and the past tenses acquire the new meanings in relation to the basic verb action. This period of development matches with the time of fixing the category of aspect in the Slavic languages. In connaction with that both the category of aspect and the category of tense are related to the description of an action duration in time, there was an interaction between these categories, which characterized the development of the aspect-tense relations.
It is marked in the article that the distinctions of two aspect – perfective and imperfective – traced in verbal categories of the Old Russian-Ukrainian language brightly enough.
The meaning of value of verbal adverbs of “the present tense” imperfective aspect was the meaning of the second- rate action, which was executed simultaneously with the basic one as if accompanying it.
The verbal adverbs of imperfective aspect are analysed in the article, the synonymity is traced among the forms that originate from the valid short present participle – these are the forms on -a / -я, -учи / -ючи, -ачи / -ячи, -ущи /- ющи, -ащи / -ящи, and also with suffixes which are inherent to verbal adverbs of perfective aspect -в / -вши. The marked variant forms had similar semantics in sentences.
The typical verbal adverbs of the past time perfective aspect meaning was the meaning of the second-rate action preceding the basic one. The verbal adverbs of perfective aspect were presented by forms with suffixes that originate from the valid short participles not only of the past tense, but also of the present tense and had the synonymous meaning.
Such the variability, probably, is not occasional; in fact the certain form expressed the specific grammatical meaning. During the marked period the differentiation of the variant affixes weakened, in some cases of the semantics of imperfective and perfect aspect of verbal adverbs was identical. The exhaustion of such differentiation resulted in forcing one of the synonymous forms out, that answered the general progress of verbal adverbs within the limits of which the fixing of correlation of the aspect-tense trend appears. That’s why in the Ukrainian language the suffixes -учи / -ючи, -ачи / -ячи, are characteristic for the verbal adverbs of imperfective aspect and -ши / -вши – for the verbal adverbs of perfective aspect.
2. Борковский В. И. Историческая грамматика русского языка / В. И. Борковский, П. С. Кузнецов. – 2-е изд., дополненное. – М. : Наука, 1965. – 555 с.
3. Булаховский Л. А. Русский литературный язык первой половины ХІХ века. Фонетика. Морфология. Ударение. Синтаксис. Т. 2 / Л. А. Булаховский. – К. : Радянська школа, 1948. – 467 с.
4. Иванов В. В. Историческая грамматика русского языка : учеб. для студ. пед. ин-тов по спец. “Рус. яз. и лит.” / Валерий Васильевич Иванов. – 3-е изд., перераб. и доп. – М. : Просвещение, 1990. – 400 с.
5. Потебня А. А. Из записок по русской грамматике. Т. 1 – 2 / А. А. Потебня. – М. : Гос-ное учеб.-пед. изд-во Министерства просвещения РСФСР, 1958. – 533 с.
6. Никифоров С. Д. Глагол, его категории и формы в русской письменности второй половины ХVІ века / С. Д. Никифоров. – М.: Изд-во академ. наук, 1952. – 344 с.