SEMANTIC AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF CONVERSIVES OF ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN LANGUAGES

  • T. H. Bondar
  • D. M. Kalishchuk
Keywords: lexico-grammatical category, conversion, actants of utterance, lexico-grammatical criterion, semantic criterion, formal-structural criterion

Abstract

The article deals with the issue of conversion as a lexical-semantic category. It is shown that conversives, along with synonyms, antonyms and hyponyms, are important correlations of lexical semantics. In the article several definitions of conversives are given and it is noted that conversives are semantically different words that turn the main actants of the utterance which form its predicative core. The two statements (original and conversive) remain synonymous, i.e. they convey the same information about the surrounding reality or its fragment (facts, events, situations, etc.), but from different points of view. 150 pairs of Ukrainian conversives, as well as their equivalents in English were obtained by sampling. Conversives were divided into groups using 3 criteria. Depending on the belonging to the part of the language (i.e. according to the lexical-grammatical criterion), we singled out 6 groups of conversives: nouns-conversives (49.3% of the total), verbs-conversives (32%), adjectivesconversives (6.7%), adverbs-conversives (7.3%), prepositions-conversives (3.3%) and conjunctions-conversives (1.4%). Within each of these groups, we singled out subgroups using the semantic criterion. Thus, in the group of nouns, 4 subgroups were obtained: nouns that are the names of an action or state; nouns that denote the subject and the result of its action; nouns denoting terms of kinship; and nouns denoting social relations. In the group of verbs we singled out 8 semantic subgroups. The subgroups representing the situations of ‘acquisition’, ‘gain – loss’, ‘social relations’, ‘social interaction’ and ‘emotional and other internal states’ contain the biggest number of conversives. Adjectives-conversives denote size, physical properties, speed, time, etc. Adverbs-conversives denote mainly the position in space and time, speed, etc. Prepositions-conversives show placement in space and time: Conjunctionsconjunctions denote mainly causal relationships or positions in space and time. According to the formal-structural criterion, conversives were divided into 3 groups. The most frequent are conversives formed from different stems (60%). Conversives ‘in themselves’ make up 32%. The smallest number of conversives are formed from the same stem (8%).

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Published
2020-12-21
How to Cite
Bondar, T. H., & Kalishchuk, D. M. (2020). SEMANTIC AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF CONVERSIVES OF ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN LANGUAGES. Bulletin of Zaporizhzhia National University. Philological Sciences, 1(1), 23-28. https://doi.org/10.26661/2414-9594-2020-1-1-3