DEPRECIATION COSTS OF FIXED ASSETS: ACCOUNTING AND MANAGEMENT ASPECT
The article performs a critical analysis of the economic essence of depreciation as a mechanism for the gradual inclusion of the value of fixed assets in current costs, which is justified by the loss of their consumer properties (usefulness) and, accordingly, value. It is determined that the complex essence of the depreciation process can be revealed by distinguishing its functions such as control and restoration (corporate), cost, valuation and tax. The contradiction between the tax function of depreciation and its other functions is revealed and investigated, the solution of which requires a fundamental delimitation of the accounting policy on depreciation of fixed assets and accrual of depreciation in the tax plane. It is proved that in the plane of financial accounting depreciation should correspond as much as possible to the process of loss of fixed assets of usefulness and, accordingly, value. The extent to which traditional depreciation methods are able to model the process of loss of fixed assets in the form of depreciation and due to operational load and other factors of physical wear is analyzed. It is proposed for fixed assets, which are primarily depreciated, the calculation of depreciation by the straight-line method, which will conditionally «average» the impact of scientific and technical process, which is extremely difficult to predict. It is substantiated that the depreciation of fixed assets, which are subject to depreciation primarily due to operational load, it is advisable to carry out the production method. Developed and substantiated a modified production method of depreciation of fixed assets, the essence of which is to establish the useful life under normal operating load and defined as the production resource of the object of the operating load under normal operating conditions for a specified period. The practical implementation of the developed proposals will significantly expand the possibilities of depreciation depending on the intensity of operating load, which in turn will improve the quality of information on depreciation costs, including in terms of individual centers and cost objects.
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